Academic Crowdsourcing in the Humanities - Crowds, Communities and Co-production

Academic Crowdsourcing in the Humanities - Crowds, Communities and Co-production

 

 

 

von: Mark Hedges, Stuart Dunn

Elsevier Reference Monographs, 2017

ISBN: 9780081010457

Sprache: Englisch

192 Seiten, Download: 2391 KB

 
Format:  EPUB, PDF, auch als Online-Lesen

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Academic Crowdsourcing in the Humanities - Crowds, Communities and Co-production



  Front Cover 1  
  ACADEMIC CROWDSOURCING IN THE HUMANITIES 2  
  Series Page 3  
  ACADEMIC CROWDSOURCING IN THE HUMANITIES: Crowds, Communities and Co-production 4  
  Copyright 5  
  CONTENTS 6  
  ABOUT THE AUTHORS 10  
  PREFACE 12  
  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 16  
  1 - Introduction: academic crowdsourcing from the periphery to the centre 18  
     INTRODUCTION 18  
     CROWDSOURCING, CITIZEN SCIENCE AND ENGAGEMENT 21  
     CROWD CONNECTIVITY: THE RISE OF SOCIAL MEDIA 23  
     METHODOLOGY 25  
  2 - From citizen science to community co-production 30  
     THE BUSINESS OF CROWDSOURCING 30  
     CROWDSOURCING IN THE ACADEMY 32  
     CROWDSOURCING AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT 36  
     COMMUNITIES OF CROWDSOURCING: SELF-ORGANIZATION AND CO-PRODUCTION 40  
     TERMINOLOGIES AND TYPOLOGIES FOR HUMANITIES CROWDSOURCING 41  
  3 - Processes and products: a typology of crowdsourcing 44  
     HUMANITIES CROWDSOURCING: A TYPOLOGY 45  
     PROCESS TYPES 46  
        Transcribing 46  
        Beyond transcription: correcting and modifying content 50  
        Crowdsourcing as knowledge organization 51  
        Crowdsourcing as creation and commentary 53  
        Spatial processes: mapping and georeferencing 54  
        Translating 55  
     ASSET TYPES 55  
        Geospatial 56  
        Text 57  
        Image 57  
        Media assets: sound and video 59  
        Ephemera and intangible cultural heritage 60  
        Numerical or statistical information 60  
     TASK TYPES 61  
     OUTPUT TYPES 63  
     CONCLUSION 66  
  4 - Crowdsourcing applied: case studies 68  
     GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION 68  
        Community archaeology 68  
        Georeferencing 72  
     TEXT 73  
        Lexicography 73  
        Text interpretation 76  
     IMAGE 78  
        Classification of images 79  
        Tagging images 80  
        Investigating images 82  
        Researching (old) images 84  
     CONCLUSION 85  
  5 - Roles and communities 88  
     INTRODUCTION AND KEY QUESTIONS 88  
     SOLITARY ROLES VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ROLES 91  
     NETWORKS OF ROLES 94  
     COLLABORATIVE ROLES 97  
     ROLES AND EMPOWERMENT 99  
     ROLES AND CONFLICT 100  
     CONCLUSION 101  
  6 - Motivations and benefits 104  
     MOTIVATIONS, INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC 104  
     FROM COMMERCIAL TO ACADEMIC CROWDSOURCING 106  
     THE ROLE OF COMPETITION 109  
     LEARNING AND ‘UPSKILLING’ 111  
     GAMIFICATION 113  
     COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS 116  
     EVOLVING MOTIVATIONS 118  
     MOTIVATIONS OF ACADEMICS AND OTHER PROJECT ORGANIZERS 118  
     CONCLUSION 120  
  7 - Ethical issues in humanities crowdsourcing 122  
     WHAT DO WE MEAN BY ETHICS IN HUMANITIES CROWDSOURCING? 122  
     ETHICS AND THE CROWDSOURCING INDUSTRY 123  
     LABOUR AND EXPLOITATION IN HUMANITIES CROWDSOURCING 125  
     WHOSE DATA IS IT ANYWAY? 131  
     PASTORAL CONCERNS AND PARTICIPANT WELL-BEING 133  
     CROWDSOURCING AS PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH 135  
     COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH 140  
     CONCLUSION 141  
  8 - Crowdsourcing and memory 144  
     INTRODUCTION 144  
     INTERNET MEMORY 145  
     COLLECTIVE MEMORY 146  
     INDIVIDUAL MEMORY 147  
     MEMORY AND STRUCTURE 149  
     GENERIC CROWD MEMORY: SHARED METHODOLOGICAL NARRATIVES 150  
        Transcribing 151  
        Collaborative tagging 152  
        Recording and creating content 153  
        Correcting/modifying content 154  
        Categorizing and cataloguing 155  
        Contextualizing 156  
        Mapping 157  
        Georeferencing 159  
        Translating 161  
     CONCLUSION 161  
  9 - Crowds past, present and future 164  
     THREE PHASES OF CROWDSOURCING 164  
        The first phase: functional crowdsourcing 165  
        The second phase: crowdsourcing 2.0 166  
        The third phase: co-production 167  
     SOME FUTURES OF CROWDSOURCING 168  
        Combining human and machine intelligence 168  
        Crowdsourcing and self-development 171  
        Public engagement and public involvement 172  
        Data literacy and social inclusion 173  
     CONCLUSIONS 174  
  BIBLIOGRAPHY 176  
  INDEX 186  
     A 186  
     B 186  
     C 186  
     D 187  
     E 187  
     G 188  
     H 188  
     I 188  
     K 189  
     M 189  
     N 189  
     O 190  
     P 190  
     S 190  
     T 190  
     U 191  
     W 191  
  Back Cover 192  

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