Chemistry II For Dummies

Chemistry II For Dummies

von: John T, Moore

For Dummies, 2012

ISBN: 9781118239469

Sprache: Englisch

384 Seiten, Download: 4733 KB

Format:  EPUB

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Chemistry II For Dummies


Congratulations. You jumped the first hurdle in understanding the basics of chemistry by passing Chemistry I. Perhaps you even used my book, Chemistry For Dummies, Second Edition (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). If you did, thank you. If you didn’t, I’m glad you’ve entrusted me with your Chemistry II endeavors. The very fact that you’re at least looking at this book indicates that you feel you may need a little help in your Chemistry II class. Chem I (believe it or not) isn’t as mathematical as Chem II. In Chem I you had a lot of descriptive material; Chem II is all about solving problems, so get ready.

About This Book

My goal with this book is not to make you into a chemistry major. My goal is simply to give you a basic understanding of some chemical topics that commonly appear in the second half of a university introductory chemistry course or the second year in a high school chemistry course. If you’re taking a course, use this book as a reference in conjunction with your notes and textbook.

Simply watching people play the piano, no matter how intently you watch them, doesn’t make you a musical expert. You need to practice. And the same is true with chemistry. It’s not a spectator sport. You probably figured that out in Chem I; you need to practice and work on problems. Chemistry II adds a lot more math problems, which may be challenging for some people. Sharpen up your calculator skills — you’ll need them. I show you how to work certain types of problems in this book — homogeneous equilibrium, for example — but use your textbook for practice problems. It’s work, yes, but it really can be fun. This book is for those of you who want some additional help with Chem II topics.

Foolish Assumptions

When I wrote this book, I made a few assumptions about you. Those assumptions include the following:

You’re taking (or retaking) a second-semester college chemistry course or preparing to take a second-semester college chemistry course.

You’re taking (or retaking) a second-year high school chemistry course or preparing to take a second-year high school chemistry course.

You at least passed the first-year high school chemistry course and are wondering whether you want to take the next class.

You at least passed the first-semester college chemistry course and are wondering whether you want to take the next class.

You feel relatively comfortable with arithmetic and know enough algebra to solve for a single unknown in an equation.

You have a scientific calculator capable of doing exponents and logarithms.

If you’re buying this book just for the thrill of finding out about something different — with no plan of ever taking a chemistry course — I applaud you and hope that you enjoy this adventure. Feel free to skip those topics that don’t hold your interest; for you, there will be no tests, only the thrill of increasing your knowledge about something new.

What Not to Read

I know you’re a busy person and want to get just what you need from this book. Although I want you to read every single word I’ve written, I understand you may be on a time crunch. If so, feel free to skip the sidebars, the gray-shaded boxes that appear here and there. These interesting bits of info aren’t essential to understanding the stuff you need to know.

I mark some paragraphs with Technical Stuff icons. What I tell you in these paragraphs is more than you need to know, strictly speaking, but it may give you helpful or interesting detail about the topic at hand. If you want just the facts, you can skip these paragraphs.

How This Book Is Organized

I’ve organized the topics in a logical progression — basically the same way I organize my courses for science and nonscience majors. Following is an overview of each part of the book.

Part I: A Basic Review of Chemistry I

In this part, I give you a basic review of those topics commonly found in a Chem I course that I feel are critical to your progression through the Chem II concepts. I review the simple concepts of chemistry in Chapter 1, and then in Chapter 2, I give you a quick review of chemical calculations. I show you how to use the factor label method of calculations, along with an introduction to the SI (metric) system.

In Chapter 3, I give a review of atomic structure, the periodic table, and the different types of bonding. I don’t cover topics in a lot of depth, but just enough to jog your memory about energy level configurations, periodicity, and bonding. In Chapter 4, I give you a good review of reaction stoichiometry because you will really need these mole-related concepts in Chem II.

In Chapter 5, I review solutions and solution concentration units. I also review the different types of intermolecular forces and the properties of liquids. In Chapter 6, I review the properties of gases including the gas laws (Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lussac’s law, the combined gas law, the ideal gas law, Avogadro’s law, and more). That’s it! Six chapters of review of a course it took half a year (or a full year) to complete.

Part II: Diving Into Kinetics and Equilibrium

In this part, you get into the real meat of Chemistry II. In Chapter 7, I discuss the factors associated with the speed of a reaction. I show you how to determine the rate law for a reaction. A rate law relates the changes in concentrations of reactants to the overall speed of reaction. I also discuss the current model on how reactions occur and end up with a discussion of catalysts.

The rest of this part focuses on equilibrium — three chapters worth. The study of equilibrium is probably the most important topic in a second-semester college chemistry (or a second-year high school) course. First, I introduce you to the basic concepts of equilibriums, and then I apply these basic concepts to homogeneous equilibrium systems. I also cover acid-base equilibrium systems, heterogeneous equilibrium systems (solubility), and complex ion equilibrium. Lots of different types of equilibriums, yet all remarkably similar.

Part III: A Plethora of Chemistry II Concepts

In this part I start off by examining thermodynamics, building on that little taste of thermochemistry you studied in Chem I. I talk about enthalpy and entropy and Gibbs Free Energy, as well as the three laws of thermodynamics. Then it’s off to electrochemistry for a discussion of redox reactions. I show you how to balance redox reactions, which can be a bane of second-semester chemistry students, and then show how redox reactions are related to electrochemical cells — batteries and electroplating.

The last three chapters of this part give you a rest from calculations. I start off by giving you a glimpse into the world of organic chemistry, the chemistry of carbon. I discuss hydrocarbons in a little detail and give you a brief introduction to other functional groups, such as the alcohols. Then I show you an application of organic chemistry — polymers. I discuss some of the different types of polymers (plastics) in terms of their structure and usage. Finally, I introduce you to the world of biochemistry, the chemistry of living things.

Part IV: Describing Descriptive Chemistry

In this part, I start by discussing the chemistry of petroleum. I introduce terms like cracking and reforming around, as well as discussing what that octane rating really means. Then I leave an old fuel for a new fuel — nuclear power. I show you the different types of nuclear decays, discuss fission and fusion, and show how to deal with half-life problems.

I finish up this part, with a discussion of chemistry in the home. That’s not covered much in general chemistry, but I believe that you deserve an opportunity to explore the practical side of chemistry a little. I discuss the chemical nature of soaps and detergents, deodorants and antiperspirants, aspirin and Viagra.

Part V: The Part of Tens

In this part, I introduce you to ten terrific tips for passing Chem II. They really do work. Then I give you the top ten mathematical formulas that you will be using in Chem II, and wind up with ten chemical careers, for those of you who are dreaming about graduating and getting a job in chemistry.

Icons Used in This Book

If you’ve read other For Dummies books, you recognize the icons used in this book, but here’s the quickie lowdown for those of you who aren’t familiar with them:

This icon gives you a tip on the quickest, easiest way to perform a task or conquer a concept. This icon highlights stuff that’s good to know and stuff that’ll save you time and/or frustration.

The Remember icon is a memory jog for those really important things you shouldn’t forget.

I use this icon when I describe safety in doing a particular activity, especially mixing chemicals.

This icon points out different example problems you may encounter with the respective topic. I walk you through them step by step to help you gain confidence.

I don’t use this icon very often because I keep the content pretty basic. But in those cases where I expand on a topic beyond the basics, I use this icon. You can safely skip this material, but you may want to look at it if you’re interested in a more in-depth description.

Where to Go from Here

I present this book’s content in a logical (at least to me) progression...